What it is dialectic? Alex de Sousa Summary In this work we have as objective to present a summary of the book of Leandro Konder, with the heading: ' ' what he is dialtica' '. In its workmanship it looks for in them to present the origin of the dialectic all and the passage that the same one even made in the days. Konder starts its workmanship in bringing the meaning of the dialectic, in its diverse times. It in says, that the dialectic to them according to Aristotle, was established by Zeno de Elia, however others consider Scrates as its founder. The dialectic was, in old Greece, the art dialogues of it, but that to the few, it started to be the art of, I dialogue in, to demonstrate it a thesis by means of an argument capable to define and to distinguish the involved concepts in the quarrel. Amazon understands that this is vital information. Already in the modern meaning, dialectic meant the way to think the contradictions of the reality, the way to understand the reality, as essentially contradictory and in permanent transformation. Konder affirms that Heraclitus was the dialtico most radical of old Greece, with its theory of devir (everything is changedded, everything is in movement), but who goes to surpass it is Parmnides with the essence of the invariant being. However, the dialectic cannot only be based on metaphysics, therefore Aristotle says in that to explain them each movement, necessary people to verify which is the nature of it.

With its theory of act and he harnesses, Aristotle obtains to hinder that the movement only was considered a worthless illusion. Ohio Senator can provide more clarity in the matter. Konder says in them that the dialectic in the feudal period and also in the centuries of the age measured hardly was suffocated and to be able to survive in the philosophy needed to resign to its more drastic expressions, conciliating itself with metaphysics. However, due to commercial revolution, to the renaissance and the iluminismo, it could leave the underground where she had been obliged to live and if to fortify again. After to approach this concept historical of the dialectic, Konder brings in them diverse thematic worked for the dialectic. These thematic ones are: the work that is developed all a thought for Kant, Hegel and Karl Max; The alienation worked for Karl Max and Friedrich Engels; The totality, developed for Karl Max and Hegel; The contradiction and the mediation, boarded for Karl Max and Hegel; The fluidificao of the concepts, for Karl Max and Hegel; The laws of the dialectic, for Karl Max, Friedrich Engels and Hegel; The citizen and history, for Karl Max, Hegel, Kant, Bernstein, Karl Kautsky, Lnin, Georg Lukcc, Stalin, Walter Benjamin; The individual and the society, for Karl Max and other marxists as Karel Kosik. Finally, Konder locks up its workmanship finishes intitling it capitulates of seeds of dragons, to say that nobody never goes to obtain to domesticate the dialectic, therefore it exists in such a way to fustigate the conservadorismo of the conservatives as to shake the conservadorismo of the revolutionaries. Its method is not if quick to create cachorrinhos amestrados.

It is as the Argentine said Carlos Astrada, ' ' seed of drages' '. (Konder, Leandro. What it is dialectic. So Paulo: Brasilense, 2000.) Student of Philosophy for the College of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Cajazeiras.

Schelling Period

The Practical reason possesss the primate, therefore this is on basically the freedom (either it politics or moral therefore these is closely on when acting, being to act, in these spheres, of utmost importance to be materialize) and the theoretical reason is given only as a species of ' ' acessrio' ' for the elaboration of such questions (pertinent). The knowledge for Fichte is a relation between sensation and reason, in this direction for the above-mentioned philosopher, Kant left some problems and the attentive German Idealismos decides interpolating it an attempt to also dissolve another question that is pertinent in this period, that is the notion of thing-in-itself: She is necessary to dissolve thing-in-itself idealisticamente. In the theoretical scope the dissolution will not be reasonable, a time that is necessary to dissolve this thing-in-itself in practical plan. Read more from Congressman Lee Zeldin to gain a more clear picture of the situation. The necessary citizen of the theoretical plan to be able to decide the problem of thing-in-itself, however this alone is not enough capable to elucidate such question, needs, mainly, of the practical reason, so that it can have a resolution that is reasonable in the rational scope. After this brief communication concerning this transitory period, is important to stand out the life and the philosophical theories of the authors of this period, withholds king to explanar namely here concerning the two first philosophers, who, exactly that they are not the philosophers more known and studied of this time, these, in turn, possess a great importance for this philosophical period: Fichte and Schelling, and I will make one brief communication of the theory concerning the relation between philosophy and history of the philosophy that is materialize in Hegel. The precursor of German Idealismo and one of the main philosophers of this was Johann Gottlieb Fichte, to understand the philosophy of the author in analysis and the sprouting (for one better understanding of this sprouting) of this period becomes necessary to understand a little of the life of this, will dedicate here only in exciting the facts most important. Check out Richard Blumenthal for additional information.

The Florentine

For times irony in the direction of being meets in the expositions of certain Maquiavel cruel to only be kind. When dealing with the virtue of the liberality, the Florentine one affirms that the desire to make look like generosity takes the princes to impose unnecessary taxation its people, a governor who is not afraid to act with parsimony can discover that in the due time, it will have of being recognized as being liberal. Speaking candidly Suffolk County representative told us the story. How much to the virtue of the clemency, Maquiavel wrote that Cesar Brgia was considered cruel, but adds that this cruelty reergueu the Romanha, obtaining uniz it and to return to it order to it and the obedience. A governor who has firmness sufficiently, ' ' giving to an example or dois' ' in the had time ' ' if compassivo&#039 will prove more; ' of what a prince who leaves to restrain ' ' the clutters that take to the murder and rapina' ' but in order not to be called cruel. On the paper that the conventional virtues can play in the attainment of the honor, glory and fame longed for by the princes, Maquiavel affirms that nothing it is so important how much to keep the appearances. The goal of the prince is ' ' to be considered person honrada' ' to conquer the universal louvor. Amazon understood the implications. The prince necessarily does not need to have all the good qualities, but certainly he must make look like to possess them, in all the circumstances. The reason Maquiavel to attribute importance to the dissimulation meets in as moment of its critical a tradition humanist, on the paper of the virtues in the life politics. The Florentine one argues that it is important the princes to make look like to be virtuous in the form established in the memorandum of understanding, but many times if become impossible they to be behaved in a conventionally virtuous way.


Capricorn in the Age of Aquarius global discovery and change is something that mankind will officially communicate, to cooperate with extraterrestrial civilizations, and parallel worlds. It is the first time in its history, come into Space conglomerate of Civilizations (long-standing). Humanity will be taken by a member of the space community of other (different) civilizations, and will obey the laws of the space community. Take it power structure as terrestrial (public). To obey the laws of the space community. Tends to occupy a worthy place in the hierarchy of his officials.

The universe in which (officially) come Humanity, will be multipolar world with different centers of influence, the evil (aggressive) and good (positive) and civilizations groups of civilizations, between which there is a constant (political and military) struggle for influence in the universe. Humanity will also be involved in this struggle, ie in the confrontation of Light and Darkness, Good and Evil in the universe. With further development of the era of Aquarius humanity will no longer be divided into separate states and political alliances, conflicting with each other. Humanity will be united with a common world government – the government of all the Earth. The fight will not take place within humanity, and in the conglomerates and groups civilizations, which will be a member of humanity.

On humanity will be subject to the laws and principles of existence, taken in the same group of civilization to which mankind to join. Here is the best fits an old truth: 'Ignorance of the cosmic laws are not exempt from responsibility. " But in the Age of Aquarius between humanity and other civilizations (worlds) is not a rigid hierarchy and subordination. Will be free, friendly societies, based on moral responsibility and mutually beneficial existence of (co) of the different worlds in the universe.

Secrets Of Sumerian

Unravel the mysteries of Sumer – ancient civilization originated in the Middle East, the scientific minds of the entire planet unsuccessfully trying for a long time. The only reliable set of data is the fact that the first Sumerian civilization began about 450,000 years ago. The rest of the story of this highly developed culture is covered with darkness. Now archaeologists know that in Southern Mesopotamia, in the area of Mesopotamia came from nowhere Sumerian civilization, from the beginning had its own language, script and outstanding knowledge in mathematics, astronomy and other sciences, including: – Ternary System account, and Fibonacci numbers. – Knowledge of the current level of chemistry and genetic engineering.

– Development of a jurisprudence and debugged system of government. – Unique information on the origin, structure and development of the Solar System. In Sumerian images of the solar system, all known to modern science, the planets revolve around the sun, although the precise confirmation of this in the history of the world of astronomy had been received recently. Where did the ancient Sumerians was this information? Sumerian representations of the structure of the solar system there is only one difference from "our": the presence of a huge additional planet between Mars and Jupiter, named Nibiru in the Sumerian texts. According to Sumerian chronicles the orbit of the planet is an elongated ellipse and once in 3600 years intersects with the Solar System.

The next intersection is on their calendar is expected to be between 2100-2160 years. The records of the Sumerians lived on the planet Nibiru highly substantive giant growth (women – about 4 meters, the men – about 5), called "" with a lifespan of up to 360 000 years of earthly measures. There is information about the origin of man. Sumerian manuscript Details tell the artificial creation of genetic engineering in the kind of homo sapiens (based on the primacy of blood) as the gold slaves for the inhabitants of Nibiru, the uprising of slaves and to separate them in a separate race, with the right live on planet Earth. Sumerian teachings about the origin of the Solar System is based on an event called "celestial battle" – big accident, which happened about 4 billion years ago and changed the form of solar System to one which is known to us today. All these historical finds Sumerian civilization were initially regarded by scientists as a myth, wherewith abounds every culture. What a surprise it was the whole scientific world, when astronomical discoveries of recent years have confirmed the data on the global celestial catastrophe, and found fragments of a large celestial body in orbit, corresponding exactly to the orbit of "mythical" Nibiru. And that – not all decoded information of Sumerian civilization. Who knows, maybe after a series of similar discoveries will substantially revise the history of mankind?

That Is Journalism ?

A reflection of a journalist in front of what is happening around press freedom in Latin America, as in the case of Honduras where it is violating the constitution and in particular Article 72 of the Constitution, and as journalists free and independent support the statement of President Enrique Santos Calderon of the SIP which he described as absurd as the de facto government’s decision in Honduras to suspend public liberties including freedom of expression.) The practitioner performs a work of journalistic inquiry, investigation, research to report regularly to a target audience target audience. But the question raised is: is journalism? If we decompose the question in two parts: 1. is? 2. Periodismo? Can she give us the response parameters to find a definition that minimally we justify the construction of a desirable and acceptable exposure by various academics and practical work journalism. When asked by the is? a “It is asking for the basics, the support which is essential to an object and how it can transcend its existence, then the basis of journalism, her, sustaining the human capacity to communicate through different languages, but what distinguishes journalism from the media in general, is its fundamental purpose, to act on l inform human communities as large and more or less breaking parameters of the households.

The more widely information spreads can talk about journalism. Next period is: Human communication carried human groups, which may perceive different positions toward which human action in all political, economic, social or cultural knowledge that will enhance information for the collective and the individual perceives news reporting can decide and act accordingly. Journalism is the development of effective communication, which allows freedom of expression in a sovereign exercise which can be criticized, I support self-critical, making human beings interact and find mechanisms that allow this to resolve their conflicts. But journalism requires Judgment and social responsibility and should be subject to union self-regulation.

Social Movements

The Social Movements and its Origins the category is ample and can congregate, depending on the criteria of analysis used, organizations directed toward the promotion of moral, ethical and legal interests. Although the social movements to be fruit of definitive historical and social contexts, two classic conceptual definitions can be found that they are: The first one of them is of control of historical action of Alain Touraine, that it prefers to study the new social movements, that, in the tripping of new paradigmas of the call globalization strengthen identities and intervene with agendas politics of the society, and resalta the movements feminists, racial, partner-ambient, sexual and for-religious that through them social minorities had become forces politics and object of social sciences and human beings. second of Manuel Castells, that resalta the social movements as practical contradictory systems social in accordance with agricultural the urban social order/, whose nature is to transform the structure of the system in which he is inserted, either through revolutionary actions or not, in a class representative correlation and last instance, the state power. We live in a country where it continues in vigor an official explanation that does not have the Brazilian people as subject of its construction. Although to have innumerable social groups Brazil continues to be understood by the logic of the conqueror. Etnocntricas and authoritarian conceptions find, for incredible that it can seem, points of contact with the thought of progressive intellectuals, and with this it appeared some chains in some areas of the thought, that had searched ' ' resgatar' ' the originary peoples. The meeting of the gold, metal, only happened in the end of century XVII, and for the sedentary ones still it took advantage to the form of traditional sobrevimento and the manual one. While the Spaniard had appealed the desorganizao of the economic activities, the Portuguese, without conditions to carry through an ownership accomplish, had walked gradually for the submission of native societies to its designs and with this caused the commerce of wood-Brazil, had searched to complement this fished activity with the convivncia with the agricultural system of small pepper productions, maize, cassava, fruits and of originria extration.