Balconies and loggias lately do not go to the editorials of glamorous magazines on interior design. The reason is simple – satiated renovation of kitchens, living rooms and bedrooms, the designers finally called metropolitan hostesses attention its forgotten balconies. This rather small and inconspicuous at first glance, the apartment could soon become a source of pride and a testament to the well-being. And where interests converge more than two women, without a soul competition does not do well! The transformation of a balcony or loggia in the course of the living room where very nice to sit and spend time with friends – no easy task, since Moscow balcony can hardly be represented in Traditional Western-style – with tables and sun loungers! They are too narrow, cold and uncomfortable. Yes, and arranged as if the are not part of the apartment, and certain additional source of danger to the respectable passers-by! But if they were all afraid of difficulties, beautiful balconies and would have stayed overseas tale.
Now – it's time to do the embodiment of her life! And we show you how to do it. First, cut out the balcony "But what I see on the glitter balcony? "William Shakespeare fantasizing on the design of the balcony would be nice to think that this part of your home can be brought in completely different roles. Try to time, to distract us from the famous image of the balcony – room for drying. This is definitely a functional idea, but with a balcony with neighbors not ! But balconies often became a place for a romantic of lovers.
Thin plastic has a flat smooth surface, but that its positive characteristics as a material for finishing the end of slopes. Some companies offer a quick and cheap to issue the space around the window, stuck on the plastic lined with cement-sand mortar slopes. Visually it looks quite well, but without the insulation of such slopes will freeze, resulting in delamination of plastic inevitable. The second option quick assembly – "put" on the mounting plastic foam, thereby solving two problems: the organization of thermal insulation and decorative finishes. In this case, foam, of course, play a role, preventing the freezing slopes, but she also spoil the look of the whole structure. Under the influence of gradually expanding the interlayer plastic will warp and go waves.
Worth I say that the savings on finishing slopes money will not cover costs for the elimination of dire consequences? Thus, we consider possible options for the use of plastic in the regeneration of inner slopes, as appropriate we highlight lists of 8-10 cm thick, sandwich panels and foamed pvc. Unlike plaster slopes, plastic easy to clean and do not need to be painted. From the windows of pvc they fit perfectly, but since we are talking about wooden models, listen to their owners have to be more sensitive. Wooden slopes lovers of natural materials tend to make the maximum use them as decoration. And when you install windows from beech oak or larch received orders to finish slopes panels from the same timber.
Processed protective compounds, such materials are virtually no fear of moisture and other climatic influences. Solid rock wood very bravely endure and mechanical impact, but care for them a bit more complicated than similar products made from pvc. But the cost of materials and works on arrangement of the wooden slopes can be called a Order a luxury rather than necessity. Cork Cork slopes slopes – a phenomenon so far less common, but some companies are already offering their customers is their. Made from the bark of the cork oak, this material – the best among the natural heat and sound insulator. It is pleasant to the touch, is environmentally friendly, and a variety of colors allows you to choose the right option for almost any decor. The disadvantages of this type of coverage You can call it a softness and vulnerability to mechanical stress, and high cost. All of the above options related to the internal decoration of slopes, but we should not forget that the outer border window design should be given equal attention as possible – and more. Finish outer slopes should not be limited incorporation seam between the window and the wall: no additional protection under ultraviolet light and moisture Air sealing foam is destroyed Plaster or plastic slopes not only give the window a complete form, but also provide protection from natural influences. Now, knowing the basic finishes slopes, you can choose most suitable for you – both in appearance and price. Window called the eyes of the house, from which depend largely on experiences from all residential premises. We hope the material in this article tell you how to avoid mistakes in final stage of the window decorations, and will help make your home bright and cozy.
The presence of holes, ruts, local elevations of more than 50 mm from the surface of a mark at this point is not allowed. The surface of the upper layer of an earthen structure or layer, after which the device should be technological break more than 3-5 days should have a cross slope 20-40 with a tolerance of -10 for cars without an automatic system of job grading marks and 5 – for machines with automatic assignment of planning marks. When excavation necessary to make sure that the bottom and slopes of reserves and seizures had slopes that provide the water flow from the working face with a mandatory release it into the lower parts area. The quality of soil compaction controlled in the construction of earthen structures and devices for foundation and other engineering works (road embankments, etc.) when building code or design documentation provides certain requirements on the density of soil. An evaluation of the compaction of soil structures produced by the value of the coefficient of compaction or density of dry soil according to gost 5180 with subsequent determination of the required indicators of soil density in accordance with gost 22733. In production conditions the coefficient of compaction (density of dry soil) can define a previously established experimentally grading dependencies between these parameters for the samples tested in accordance with gost 5180 and gost 22733, and circumstantial characteristics degree of compaction of the soil (resistivity of penetration, the conditional dynamic resistance, etc.) established by testing the same samples by accelerated methods.
Calibration dependence, used in control, must be received as a result of the test soils, which are used in the construction of earthworks. In constructing the calibration curves for silty-clay soils should be considered a possible change in their moisture. Calibration dependence can be used to determine coefficient of soil compaction earthworks, if it gives a relative error of less than 0.015. The rules for determining the error, and examples for constructing the calibration dependence are given in Appendix J. In Control soil compaction may be used generalized correlations were obtained for the type and kind of soil, provided the mandatory testing of their suitability for each lot to be used for construction of earthen structures.
In accordance with this Manual degree of soil compaction earthworks define accelerated following methods: – a dynamic sensing (dynamic or Density driving penetrometer) – Static Penetration (cone penetration with a conical tip) – seismic (seismic and ultrasonic devices) – weighing in water (unit Kovalev). When choosing expedited evaluation methods Compaction earthworks should take into account the depth of the monitored area, type of soil, as well as real support for building the organization devices. Quality control seal earthen building number and location of sites (dots) measurements assigned in accordance with the regulations or the project. Number of parallel measurements in place (point) tests taken at least two. The difference between parallel determinations should not exceed values. If the difference exceeds the permissible number of definitions should be increased to three.
If the house is not typical, then the projects are developed individually. So, to begin to tcc and the approved project. On the basis of their form construction documents (CAP). On the basis of its funds are allocated for works, procurement of materials and equipment. This is a problem created by the prefectures gdez (Directorate General for a single customer), which are government customers for specific objects (section 6.2). Dedicated funds are being performers – installation and construction companies, which are selected on a competitive basis.
Further, all work should already be in strict accordance with the project and pds. The list of materials and equipment as determined in accordance with these documents or regulations to which they link (SNIP, gost, tu, etc.). At the design stage everything seems to be situation normal. Provided and use the latest achievements of science and technology. Most of the projects developed by leading industry institutes (, etc.), take into account the demands of the times: the need to install noise-reducing glass, auto radiator thermostats on radiators, stoves, water meters, using polypropylene pipes and much more.
But beyond the fun begins. And that, in practice? The thing that is not always provided for the project and pds equipment purchase and installation of which the city allocates money is in place. Many construction organizations are trying to win a tender to repair any means. Sometimes the principal means of competition is open dumping. Having desired order, enterprising wheeler-dealer trying to "regain its" and "save" the money allocated for salaries of qualified specialists and the purchase of materials.
Documentary warranty All the time we talked about the construction quality. However, it is unattainable without the support good quality materials and technology. Unfortunately, the mechanism of certification is almost not working. This is partly because the reform of standardization: SNiPs passed into the category recommendatory documents, and the majority of technical regulations is now under development. In this connection special importance is the voluntary certification. It is profitable today, not only consumers but and producers as well as confirms the quality of their products and enhance competitiveness. In construction there are several voluntary certification schemes.
For example, established in 2004 "RosStroySertifikatsia", which comprises about 50 regulatory authorities and the order of 40 testing laboratories. State Standard of Russia also holds certification today not only in the gost R system, but in a system of voluntary certification. This mechanism is used by many companies. For example, a group of companies propleks have certified it produced of pvc window profile, in which was installed 60-year period of its operation, and increased frost resistance, up to date for the Russian winters. Document the effectiveness of its products in domestic climatic conditions and the company can ursa, a manufacturer of building insulation materials and insulation systems.
It is only natural that consumers prefer materials, high quality is confirmed by a certificate. The last word – for the State to ensure full effect of of all these quality control mechanisms must state examination erected buildings. "Missing the construction of state control – it means losing a real impact on this area, – The head of the fgi "Federal Licensing Center" Alexander Tolkachev. Today these functions are performed by agencies of the State Architectural and Construction Supervision (GASN). His task is to supervise the provision of participants in the building match erected buildings and structures made of building materials, components and structures of normative-technical and project documentation. However, the work of specialists gasn complicated by the lack of legislative decisions on licensing, as well as the current system of technical regulations. Therefore, how effective and straightforward, these solutions will largely depend quality of domestic construction in the foreseeable future. Thus, the construction must be an integrated system of regulation based on the use of a number of independent tools. It can be done if access control companies in the market is accompanied by a certification of services and materials, insurance, consumer interests, as well as government oversight of construction quality. The specialists expressed different opinions, but agree on one thing: the expected today, legislative changes need to be comprehensive. It is possible that in the current situation should not make any hasty decisions and to allow additional time (Eg, within the time allotted for the transition to a system of technical regulations) for the careful consideration and coordination of all aspects of the problem.
In March and April 2007 virtually all Russian enterprises which are engaged in the steel industry, increased prices for manufactured products. There were massive publication, handling customers in government bodies in which condemns Russian metallurgists in the growth of inflation and price rise. The price increase earlier this year for raw materials has led to increased production costs on the Russian market. In January 2007, the cost of scrap 67%. Although the cost of raw materials in the manufacture of metal is 57%. Worldwide rise in prices for raw materials has led to an increase in prices for metal because of the increasing cost of metallurgical enterprises.
The open nature of the Russian economy and processes, creating the world markets made an impact on the Russian domestic market. But despite this the price for metal in Russia does not correspond to the level of world prices, although sales metal is still a highly profitable business. Metallurgical plants do not increase the volume of deliveries, despite the situation of the world market. For quite a long time companies have stable export. At the same time in the last 3 years the consumption of metal in Russia increased by 23%. World market prices have increased significantly due to increased cost of raw metal and real growth consumption. Consumers of steel are expressed, concern rising prices for metal, in fact, demonstrating strong growth of economic indicators. Thus, buyers turned to antitrust authorities with complaints of manufacturers of steel and demand: lower prices for steel products and more favorable terms.