Tombstones known as memorials, grave stones, tombstones and funeral monuments, have the same function and erected with a common goal. This method is to perpetuate the memory of the deceased. Gravestone Stones were originally made of wood. Archaeologists have found Neanderthal graves that date back 50 000-75 000 let.Tela were found in caves with large mountainous piles, covering the entrance. Over time, develop various methods of burial.
The Chinese were the first to use coffins to contain their dead (about 30 000 BC), Mummification and embalming were used about 3200 bc to preserve the body of Egyptian Pharaohs for the afterlife. Pharaohs were placed in a sarcophagus and buried with statues representing their servants and advisers they trust, as well as gold and luxuries to ensure their adoption in the next world. Some King demanded to have their servants and advisers accompany them in death, and his servants and advisors were killed and placed in the grave. Cremation, which started at the same time as mummification, was also a popular method of getting rid of dead bodies. With the development of various religions, began to forbid cremation. The Inquisition claimed that it resembles the pagan rituals. In 1348, the Plague hit Europe and forced people to bury the dead as soon as possible and away from cities. Very often the relatives and friends of the dead were infected with the plague during the ritual burial, because cemeteries, while many tombs continued to spread the disease, beyond the cemetery.
In 1665, British Parliament banned the holding large funeral and set a minimum depth of graves 6 feet (1.8 m). This reduced the spread of the disease, but many cemeteries continued to overpopulate. The first cemetery similar today, there was a cemetery 'garden' set in Paris in 1804. It is in this cemetery headstone and memorials became difficult work of sculptors. Social status is defined by the size and beauty of the memorial. Early memorials depicted horrific scenes with skeletons and demons to instill fear of the afterlife in the residence. Later in the nineteenth century, tombstones have developed in favor of peaceful scenes, such as cherubs and angels, leading to higher peace. Materials Early headstones were made of slate, which was available everywhere. The following material, which became popular was marble, but marble tombstones were destroyed in time and erased the inscriptions, and details of the deceased were not clear. By 1850, granite is the preferred material of the grave monument because of its stability and availability. In modern memorials granite – the main raw materials used. Granite – igneous rock, composed primarily of quartz, feldspar, and plagioclase feldspar with other particles. Granite can be white, pink, light gray or dark gray. This breed can be obtained from the magma, which slowly cooled and eventually eroded by the soil.